Whether you’ve been preparing for it for the past few months, or have read the horror stories on the Student Room forums, if you’re doing the LNAT, you’re serious about studying Law.
So what is the LNAT? How do you prepare for it?
The National Admissions Test for Law (LNAT) is a Law entrance exam required by some of the top universities in the UK (including Oxford, Kings, UCL, Durham and Birmingham).
Things to Know First
1 — You can’t study for it The LNAT is not a test about Law, it is a test about your ability as a law student. Given that Law is not a subject usually studied in school, nor is it linked to other subjects (in the way that, for example, Engineering is rooted in Physics), the LNAT doesn’t test you on the UK legal system. What it does test is your ability to interpret texts and write nuanced essays on controversial issues.
2 — It is meant to be hard If you’ve done your research, you’ve probably seen people write online about how they’ve achieved anywhere from 19-30/42. The truth is that the LNAT is an inherently difficult test, with the national average reported at 20/42 and successful Oxbridge applicants averaging at 26/42. So don’t get stressed if you don’t get top marks in your practice tests — you’re not supposed to!
Section A: Multiple-Choice
The multiple-choice section is the biggest part of the exam and the one which gives students the most difficult time. Tasked with reading 12 texts on anything from Philosophy to Science, you are given a set of 42 questions to answer in 95 minutes.
Given the variety of texts, this is not a test of pre-existing knowledge, but of your ability to interpret and answer questions on the specific text. (What is the writer’s main argument? Why does she put a certain word in quotation marks? What is the writer trying to say when he uses X metaphor?)
Here’s a useful formula for tackling each multiple-choice question:
1 — Question What is the question asking? This is extremely important as many students trip on the subtle words used in the question. The reader may be able to infer a difference between the writer’s personal view and the views expressed in the text. Focus on the actual words used: some of the questions will have specific word in bold type to add extra emphasis, so keep a look out for these.
2 — Context Make sure you read the entire text before beginning to answer the questions. Even though some questions refer to specific paragraphs of the text, it is important to a sense of the text as a whole so that you don’t miss the point of a question. Having a firm understanding of the context will help you answer questions on a writer’s choice of quotation marks or his use of certain word pairings.
3 — Answer Given that it’s multiple-choice, no distinction is made between choosing an answer which is totally wrong and one which is close to the correct answer. Thus, while a process-of-elimination approach will help to narrow the options, you must learn to justify your answer using evidence in the text, as a lawyer does when presenting arguments in court. When you go about answering questions, reassure yourself that your answer is correct by looking for sentences in the text which support your answer rather than going on a ‘gut feeling’. (Statistics also show that if you do go with your gut-feeling, more than 50% of the time your first choice is the correct answer, so don’t overthink a question either!)
4 — Timing Remember that you are under strict timed conditions. When you get stuck on a question (as we all inevitably do), don’t spend too much time worrying over it. The cost-benefit analysis shows that losing one point on this difficult question is worth the extra 5 or 6 you can make by saving time and skipping over it. Spend an average of 2.5 minutes on each question. If you get stuck on one, move on and come back to it later when you’ve answered all the other questions.
IMPORTANT NOTE: The multiple-choice section is 95 minutes long, so even if you finish the section early, do not go directly to the essay section as the time you’ve saved does not roll over to the essay section.
Section B: Essay
The essay section is not marked by the LNAT. Your essay is sent to each university’s Admissions Officer for independent review, so in some respects this section is more important than the multiple-choice section.
You will be presented with a set of 3 essay questions on a variety of topics (i.e. human cloning, censorship, doping, voting). You have 40 minutes to choose one and provide an answer. What all these have in common is that they are fairly controversial issues, with no clear answer — so avoid providing a one-sided essay. To help prepare yourself, be sure to stay up to date on current affairs!
In choosing an essay question, make sure that you have a fair level of knowledge on the issue itself for a balanced answer i.e. know both sides of the debate. Also be sure to have an understanding of the question itself and what it is asking you to do.
Take 5 minutes to plan your essay: this will help avoid the trap of writing out half your essay only to realise that you misunderstood the question or have a better way of answering it, which may lead you to starting from scratch or making a confusing/awkward U-turn in the middle of your arguments.
My tips for tackling the essay question:
1 — Semantics Focus on the wording of the question. What words are used and why have they been chosen? A recent essay question “cheating can be justified” found students ignoring the word justified completely and instead writing an essay on how cheating can be excused in certain circumstances.
2 — Clashing Arguments In every essay topic there is a specific issue in the debate which both parties disagree (for example, on abortion: the status of the foetus). A great essay will directly deal with these points of clash rather than choose arguments and counter-arguments that have nothing to do with another.
3 — The Strong-Arm Once you have presented these clashes, the key is to justify why your argument outweighs the counter-argument. Think of yourself as a judge: when you write your essay you must represent both sides of the debate, and then assert why you believe one argument is stronger than the other.
4 — Fit Paragraphs An issue with LNAT essays is that students tend to bloat their paragraphs by taking excessive time to develop one point. While this may add more refinement and power to that point, it is important to understand that in the 40 minutes you have to write your essay you should prioritise providing a balanced analysis on 2-3 issues of clash. That means your points have to be lean, cutting down on unnecessary words or sentences. Useful tool to help you do this will be using the PEEL (Point, Explanation, Evidence, Link) structure which you may have been taught in school.
One of the most important things to remember when doing the LNAT is DO NOT STRESS. Stress is the #1 exam killer. So long as you practice using the free LNAT practice papers on the official LNAT website and follow these tips, there is no reason why you should worry. The LNAT isn’t the be-all or end-all, it is just one component of your university application. Prepare well and do your best, and your skills will be reflected on the test.
To find out more about the LNAT or for specific advice or LNAT tutoring, you’re most welcome to book a session with one of our experts.
Max is reading Law at St Anne’s College, Oxford (firstname.lastname@example.org)
My name is Ayesha and I’m a first year Medic at Jesus College, Oxford. I’m a second generation Brit of Asian heritage and was born and raised in Lancashire, applying to Oxford from a state school and Sixth Form college, in a small town in the North of England.
Before I applied to Oxford, I had two main concerns:
1 — I wouldn’t be good enough to be accepted
2 — My background would make being offered a place more difficult
If you share these apprehensions, I hope I can convince you that they shouldn’t be overriding concerns.
I never grew up dreaming of studying at the Dreaming Spires and only considered applying to Oxford two weeks before the deadline! It wasn’t because I wasn’t interested in the University and the medical degree they offered, but more because I was afraid to apply and be rejected.
For many people who apply here, failure isn’t something they are familiar with!
If the idea of attending the best university in the world, to study arguably the most competitive degree wasn’t daunting enough, applying from a high school which had never before had a successful Oxbridge applicant made it that much tougher. I was also aware of the big North/South divide, coming from an ethnic minority background and wearing a headscarf made it seem like there was just too many hoops to jump through. I was very concerned that the calibre of student Oxford expect would be beyond my capabilities and I would struggle to keep up with the rest of my year.
The list of reasons not to apply just kept growing!
I knew if I didn’t give it a shot I’d always wonder what could have been. And so my journey to Oxford started.
The truth was it doesn’t matter where you are from, your accent, background, religion or race; if your application and interviews show you’re good enough, Oxford will welcome you! The diversity of the student body is only ever improving and worrying about fitting in should not be the reason not to apply. With over 23,000 students and 38 colleges finding people who share your interests/beliefs is not so difficult.
The plethora of societies available to join ensures you’re always meeting new people, united by a common interest. Some societies even help prospective students with their applications and interview practise, so it’s worth checking out their websites or dropping them an email to see if they can help you.
The competitiveness of the process can be overwhelming and can make you doubt yourself, but more than anything I found that at interviews and open days other applicants were just as friendly and nervous as I was. I always tried not to view the other applicants as competition, instead just focusing on myself, and how I could give the most accurate (and flattering of course) reflection of me.
Ultimately, try to enjoy the experience, and if it becomes stressful, take a step back and remember why you first started.
Ayesha is a first year Medical student at Jesus College, Oxford. She may be contacted via email@example.com
It would be too easy to say that there is one single answer to the question ‘What makes an exceptional Oxbridge candidate?’ There are, however, a number of achievements and qualities that will improve your chances of being viewed as a strong contender in the fierce competition for a place at either Oxford or Cambridge.
1 — Qualifications
Throughout the admissions process, Oxbridge tutors are looking for intelligent, broad-minded and academically talented individuals. Academic achievement is at the heart of the Oxbridge decision-making process.
Generally, you will need to have at least 6 A*s at GCSE and many candidates will have more. The tutors will however, view your results in the context of your school. That is to say, if no one in your year at school achieved above a B at GCSE and you achieved 2 A*s, you may well still be viewed as a strong candidate. Both Oxford and Cambridge state that achievements gained post-16, e.g. A-Levels, are a better predictor of academic success at university than pre-16 qualifications e.g. GCSEs. Therefore, they are much less concerned with your GCSE grades than with your higher-level qualifications. If you feel you have not performed as well as you could have in your GCSEs due to extenuating circumstances; the universities will generally take this into account as well.
A-Levels, IB and other qualifications
In order to present as a great candidate for Oxford or Cambridge, you will need excellent grades in whichever qualification you have taken post-16. On their website, Oxford state that you will need between AAA and A*A*A* at A-Level, depending on your course. The Cambridge website indicates that between A*AA and A*A*A* is needed. This is something to think about if you are not certain you can achieve higher than AAA.
If you are taking the IB, a score of at least 38, including core points is required for Oxford with 766 at higher level. For Cambridge, the typical requirement is a total score of at least 40 including core points, and 776 at higher level. It has been known for Cambridge to make offers of 42 points with 777 at higher level, particularly for the sciences and maths. This is something to consider when choosing between the two as Oxford rarely make such high demands.
With regards to alternative qualifications, both universities have extensive sections on their websites, outlining exactly what they expect in terms of grades (find the link below). If you are unsure about what is required, you should always email the head of admissions to check that you have the required subjects/grades to apply. Try and obtain in writing, requirements that are not stated on the website, as this can be used as evidence later if you are rejected based on your subject choices alone.
Specific subject requirements vary considerably between the two universities and between courses, and further information can be found on the Oxford and Cambridge websites.
Making the choice between three or four+ A-Levels
Whether to do three, four or even more A-Levels is a completely personal choice. Some students will not wish to restrict themselves to three A-Levels and will naturally want to do four or more; whereas some students will feel they are unable to make the required grades doing more than three. There are a range of other personal reasons which may influence the choice. In terms of requirements by Oxbridge, there is no formal requirement to take more than three A-Levels although many candidates will. During a talk to parents, it was stated that, at certain colleges, the average number taken is 3.4 A-Levels. My advice would be to do what suits you best. There is no point in a student pushing themselves to do more than they can handle, burning out and not achieving as well as they could. On the other hand, many of the best candidates take three or more so, if a student can cope with more than three A-Levels and do well, then four or more may be a good option. It gives students the opportunity to take a whole extra subject that bit further and may give them more to talk about at interview.
2 — The Admissions Tests
Many colleges and many subjects at both Oxford and Cambridge now require you to sit admissions tests. These are additional tests, which you arrange through your school or a test centre, that aim to test your knowledge of concepts, your critical thinking or both. Each test be explained on its own website where you can find more information, as well as past papers which are crucial for practice before the real test. Look out for our blog about admissions tests coming soon. In the mean time you can go to the relevant website (Oxford or Cambridge) and check if you need to take an additional test and if so, which one.
Thinking Skills Assessment (TSA) — required by Oxford for a number of subjects including Psychology, Chemistry and Geography
National Admissions Test for Law (LNAT) — required by many universities for applicants reading Law
Medical College Admissions Test (UKCAT and BMAT) — required by many universities for applicants reading Medicine
3 — Other qualities
In a way, it is easier to outline the qualifications required by the universities than the qualities required. Although varied, the academic requirements are fairly standard, and you can be reasonably confident that if you have the required grades then you at least have a chance at interview. In this section, I will aim to pull together all the information I have received in my time as a student and tutor and try to elucidate some of the qualities that tutors at Oxbridge are looking for.
Genuine interest in your subject
This is a crucial requirement when applying to Oxbridge. Time and time again I hear that tutors can easily identify when a student is not really that interested in their subject. At a recent talk, it was stated that students need ‘a real, genuine and heartfelt interest in their subject’. It is vital therefore, that you pick the right subject for you in the first place (look out for our blog on ‘choosing the right subject’ coming soon) as it is very difficult to fake interest at interview. That said, if you have picked the right subject then you should naturally come across as interested!
It is also important to boost your knowledge by reading widely around your subject. Both universities will have a reading list for each course and you should use this to guide your reading. Pick books you really like the sound of and make sure you read them before the interview! Take inspiration from the reading list to find your own books. For example, if there is a book on molecular biology which interests you- find more information on that subject by yourself. This will show initiative and will help you come across as knowledgeable and engaged in your subject at interview. Having said that, don’t try to mention your reading at every opportunity as this may come across as forced. The reading should help you naturally chat about interesting topics and subjects which is exactly what the interviewers are looking for!
Evidence of critical thinking
It is true that the best Oxbridge candidates have often read widely around their chosen subject and have put a lot of effort into finding out more about subjects that interest them. However, tutors at Oxbridge are looking for more than just the ability to read and regurgitate information. They are looking for critical thinking. This somewhat broad quality is what sets apart good candidates from great ones. Broadly, being able to think critically means that you are able to objectively analyse and evaluate an argument, theory or statement in order to form your own judgement. Whenever you read information, be that in a textbook, in an academic journal, in a newspaper or online, you should not only be taking the information in, but also processing it, evaluating it and coming to your own conclusions about it.
This may include but is not limited to:
Identifying different arguments based around a topic or issue
Evaluating an argument or statement in order to identify its strengths and weaknesses
Using the above to form a reasoned and evidenced argument of your own.